End Notes and Footnotes

Psychology, Math for TeachingBiology, Biotechnology, Sustainability and Humanities do not use footnotes or endnotes for references.

  • Proposals and theses in those disciplines are allowed to use footnotes or endnotes only for explanatory material and should be kept to an absolute minimum or not used at all

Government, History, International Relations, Legal Studies and other Social Sciences proposals and theses use footnotes (preferable) or endnotes for references as well as for explanatory material.

  • Proposals and theses in these fields should follow the Notes and Bibliography section of the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition

Information Technology allows the use of footnotes (and endnotes) - if you choose to use footnotes, please follow the APA style guide.

As a general rule:

  • Use the appropriate style (APA, MLA, CMS) for your field
  • Place endnotes at end of thesis as opposed to footnotes that appear at the end of each page
  • Use endnotes after appendices or supplements, and before bibliography or references