Humanities: In-text Citations

Generally, an in-text citation within the Humanities discipline includes the Author’s Name (or the element that comes first in the works-cited list) and the Page Number.

  • If the author’s name is mentioned in the text, it does not need to be repeated in the citation

The aim of an in-text citation is to lead your reader easily to the source material, while not distracting from the text itself.

Examples

An entire subgenre of Dutch still life paintings in the 17th century celebrates the sensuous and social pleasures of tobacco smoking (Schama 195).

If the author’s name is mentioned in the text, only the page number appears in parenthesis:

In his study of 17th-century Dutch culture, Simon Schama notes that an entire subgenre of still life paintings celebrates the sensuous and social pleasures of tobacco smoking (195).

If more than one work appears in the works-cited list under that author’s name:

An entire subgenre of Dutch still life paintings in the 17th century celebrates the sensuous and social pleasures of tobacco smoking (Schama, Embarrassment of Riches 195).

If the work has two authors, include both last names in the in-text citation:

The images were widely perceived as having an alienating effect on viewers, both in the United States and abroad (Reed and Houston 122).

If a paraphrased idea comes from more than one source:

Strategies of implementation were found wanting by those in the San Antonio region in particular (Stephens 55; Acela 112; Walsh 42).

For more complete guidelines and strategies for in-text citations, please review the MLA Handbook 8th Edition