Social Sciences: Bibliographies

Bibliographies for Social Sciences follow the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

As an example, please review this excerpt from a Harvard ALM student’s thesis:

bibliography excerpt

  • Please see the complete bibliography attached to this page

You should also consider the following as guidelines as you construct your bibliography:

  • Indent the second and subsequent line of each bibliographical entry
  • Double-space between entries in your bibliography
  • Make sure all the items you cite in footnotes are also listed in the Bibliography
  • If you list an item under Works Cited in your bibliography, make sure you do have it cited in your footnotes or move it to Works Consulted
  • Likewise, items listed under Works Consulted should be moved to Works Cited if you have cited them in a footnote
  • You should use three em dashes (———.) in the bibliography to indicate the same author’s name as preceding
  • Components of each bibliographical item are usually separated by periods (not commas)
  • Provide the inclusive page numbers of articles that are in books and journals

Representing places of publication in footnotes and bibliography

  • Usually the state abbreviation is not included, especially for well-known cities such as New York or Boston
  • The state abbreviation is usually included for lesser-known cities, such as Englewood Cliffs, NJ, or when another well-known city of the same name exists elsewhere

In above case, priority is given to the other city, especially if it is in Great Britain.

  • Example: “Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,” but “Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.”

Citation of articles in collections of articles or encyclopedias

It’s recommend you include a separate entry in your bibliography for the collection or encyclopedia, especially if you cite more than one item from it.

  • Example: entries from American National Biography or The Dictionary of National Biography
  • That way, you can use a short-form title citation in each subsequent reference in your footnotes - i.e. you do not need to repeat all the publishing information with each new article cited
  • There is no need to create a separate entry when citing only one article in your thesis from a collection or encyclopedia

Multiple items by one author

It’s usually a good idea - in order to avoid confusing the reader - to use the short form of the title in second and subsequent references to that author in your footnotes, even if you have up to that point cited only one work by that author.

bibliography.socialsciences.pdf247 KB