Social Sciences: Working Bibliography

General guidelines:

  • Divide the bibliography into “Works Cited”; “Works Consulted”; and “Works to Be Consulted”
  • Do be sure to add an annotation to each of the items listed in the “Works Consulted” in your bibliography

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMS)

This resource (please be sure to use the most recent edition) presents several acceptable ways of documenting sources within the text, including the use of parenthetical citations that refer to items listed in the bibliography.

  • For purposes of the ALM thesis, students in the social sciences fields of History, Government, Legal Studies, and International Relations should plan to use endnotes or footnotes for documentation.

Endnotes or Footnotes

Endnotes - a collective list of all the notes, which always precede the bibliography.

Footnotes - occur at the bottom of each page on which a reference occurs.

  • All notes are numbered consecutively throughout the document
  • When first cited, endnotes/footnotes contain all the information of the bibliographical entry—author, title, and - in parentheses - place of publication, publisher, and date ... plus the page number of the citation
  • Unlike entries in a bibliography, footnotes do not invert first name and last name
  • Author’s name is given in a normal fashion (i.e. notes are not alphabetized)
  • Each citation should end with a period


For purposes of economy in the ALM proposal & thesis, your bibliography and notes are formatted using:

  • Single-spacing within entries
  • Double-spacing between entries
  • First line of each footnote should be indented ½ inch
  • Second and subsequent lines begin flush with the left margin

Within bibliography - second and subsequent lines of each entry are indented ½ inch - first line is flush with left margin

Footnote/Endnote Examples

1Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Basic, 1973), 17.

2Henry David Thoreau, “A Natural History of Massachusetts,” in The Portable Thoreau, ed. Carl Bode (New York: Viking, 1964), 83.

3Alan E. Newsome, “The Abundance of Red Kangaroos in Central Australia,” Australian Journal of Zoology 13 (1965): 270.

          4Michelle Landauer, “Images of Virtue: Reading , Reformation, and the Visualization of Culture in Rousseau’s La Nouvelle Héloïse.”  Romanticism on the Net 46 (2007): n.pag. Accessed November 8, 2010.  doi:10.1086/589754.

Note: A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is preferable to a URL

Citing the Same Work Multiple Times

After the initial complete citation of a work, CMS-style notes can be reduced in length. In second and subsequent citations of each work, it's customary to simply cite the author’s name plus the page number.


2Geertz, Interpretation, 19.

It may be necessary to quote multiple times from works of particular importance to your study (e.g., one or more novels, a collection of letters, work of a historian whose theories you oppose).

  • In such cases, it may be more economical to cite the work fully in an endnote or footnote the first time you quote from it
  • At the end of the citation, add a statement such as “Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text

In the case of multiple citations of a work you wish to abbreviate (e.g., The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn), you may add “Hereafter cited parenthetically in the text as HF

  • From that point on, when this work is quoted, a brief citation in the text - often simply a page number - will suffice

Sample entry for a journal article:


Della Terza, Dante. “Italian Fiction from Pavese to Pratolini, 1950-1960.” Italian Quarterly 3, no. 1 (Fall 1959): 29-45.

Footnote or endnote:

1Dante Della Terza, “Italian Fiction from Pavese to Pratolini, 1950-1960,” Italian Quarterly 3, no. 1 (Fall 1959): 37.

Sample entry for a newspaper:


Wilson, James. “Tragedy in the Falklands.” New York Times, April 18, 1987.

Footnote or endnote:

1James Wilson, “Tragedy in the Falklands,” New York Times, April 18, 1987, A4.

Sample entry for a book with two authors:


Douglass, Joseph D., Jr., and Amoretta M. Hoeber. Soviet Strategy for Nuclear War. Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1979.

Note: First author’s name appears with the last name first; second author (and others in multiple-author books) appears in normal form, with the last name last.

Footnote or endnote:

1Joseph D. Douglass, Jr., and Amoretta M. Hoeber, Soviet Strategy for Nuclear War (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1979), 29.

Sample entry for one volume of a multi-volume set:


Keynes, John Maynard. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. Vol. 2 of The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes. 30 vols. London: Macmillan, 1971.


Keynes, John Maynard. The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes. Vol. 2: The Economic Consequences of the Peace. London: Macmillan, 1971.

Footnote or endnote:

1John Maynard Keynes, The Collected Writings of John Maynard Keynes. 30 vols. (London: Macmillan, 1971), 2:45.

Consult the online CMS guide for more detailed information.   If in doubt, contact your Research Advisor.